[11] Marinus of Tyre reportedly used the name in his unpreserved world map from the 2nd century CE. Instead the recent increases in glacier outflow are believed to be due to an inflow of warm water from the deep ocean, just off the continental shelf. In coastal areas such as Shackleton Range and Victoria Land some faulting has occurred. The sheet has been of recent concern because of the small possibility of its collapse. All told, there are as many as 45 year-round stations and 30 summer stations (field stations). Managers and other senior officers of the whaling stations often lived together with their families. On the continent itself, the large volume of ice present stores around 70% of the world's fresh water. [131] The 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty also restricts a struggle for resources. Among them was the founder of Grytviken, Captain Carl Anton Larsen, a prominent Norwegian whaler and explorer who, along with his family, adopted British citizenship in 1910. Robertson Land, Wilkes Land, and Victoria Land. A little known fact about Antarctica is that it the largest desert on Earth. Various factors may aid in their distribution – fairly uniform temperatures of the deep ocean at the poles and the equator which differ by no more than 5 °C, and the major current systems or marine conveyor belt which transport eggs and larval stages. As a result, the continental mass of the East Antarctic ice sheet is held at lower temperatures, and the peripheral areas of Antarctica, especially the Antarctic Peninsula, are subject to higher temperatures, which promote accelerated melting. [6] Most of Antarctica is a polar desert, with annual precipitation of 200 mm (7.9 in) along the coast and far less inland; there has been no rain there for almost 2 million years, yet 80% of the world freshwater reserves are stored there, enough to raise global sea levels by about 60 metres (200 ft) if all of it were to melt. Jacobsen arrived on the island in 1904 and became the manager of Grytviken, serving from 1914 to 1921; two of his children were born on the island. According to various organisations (the National Science Foundation,[23] NASA,[24] the University of California, San Diego,[25] the Russian State Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic,[26] among others),[27][28] ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica or its ice shelf in 1820: Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (a captain in the Imperial Russian Navy), Edward Bransfield (a captain in the Royal Navy), and Nathaniel Palmer (a sealer from Stonington, Connecticut). Many countries conducted their first Antarctic explorations and constructed the first research stations on Antarctica. found instead that the net change in ice mass is slightly positive at approximately 82 gigatonnes per year (with significant regional variation) which would result in Antarctic activity reducing global sea-level rise by 0.23 mm per year. New claims on Antarctica have been suspended since 1959, although in 2015 Norway formally defined Queen Maud Land as including the unclaimed area between it and the South Pole. Antarctica is believed to have abundant natural resources such as oil reserves and 70% of the Earth's freshwater; however, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty prevents humans from exploiting the land for these resources. The only anomalous area of West Antarctica is the Ellsworth Mountains region, where the stratigraphy is more similar to East Antarctica. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness,[5] which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctica is often called "The Frozen Continent". Biologists, in addition to examining the wildlife, are interested in how harsh temperatures and the presence of people affect adaptation and survival strategies in a wide variety of organisms. There are no countries in Antarctica but there is the Antarctic Treaty to protect Antarctica and preserve the continent for science. [85], Emilio Marcos Palma was the first person born south of the 60th parallel south, the first born on the Antarctic mainland, and the only living human to be the first born on any continent. [97] The southern rockhopper penguin has distinctive feathers around the eyes, giving the appearance of elaborate eyelashes. West Antarctica is covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Instead of inventing a new name to replace it, they took the name Australia from the south polar continent, leaving it nameless for some eighty years. Over time, Gondwana gradually broke apart, and Antarctica as we know it today was formed around 25 million years ago. A sun dog, a frequent atmospheric optical phenomenon, is a bright "spot" beside the true sun. The geological study of Antarctica has been greatly hindered by nearly all of the continent being permanently covered with a thick layer of ice. [77] Antarctica is a frozen desert with little precipitation; the South Pole receives less than 10 mm (0.4 in) per year, on average. The emperor penguin is the only penguin that breeds during the winter in Antarctica; it and the Adélie penguin breed farther south than any other penguin. The treaty was signed by twelve countries including the Soviet Union (and later Russia), the United Kingdom, Argentina, Chile, Australia, and the United States. [122] The only documented military land manoeuvre has been the small Operation NINETY by the Argentine military in 1965.[123]. There are about 100 species of mosses and 25 species of liverworts, but only three species of flowering plants, all of which are found in the Antarctic Peninsula: Deschampsia antarctica (Antarctic hair grass), Colobanthus quitensis (Antarctic pearlwort) and the non-native Poa annua (annual bluegrass). There are approximately 50 permanent active research stations representing 32 countries drawn from all the continents. At 0.00008 people per square kilometre, it is by far the least densely populated continent. Due to its location at the South Pole, Antarctica receives relatively little solar radiation except along the southern summer. [132], Small-scale "expedition tourism" has existed since 1957 and is currently subject to Antarctic Treaty and Environmental Protocol provisions, but in effect self-regulated by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO). [1] Despite these new acts, unregulated and illegal fishing, particularly of Patagonian toothfish (marketed as Chilean Sea Bass in the U.S.), remains a serious problem. The three main stipulations surrounding Antarctic land use: Antarctica's goal is for minimal human-derived human impacts and for researchers to leave no trace. [89] As of 2009, eleven children were born in Antarctica (south of the 60th parallel south): eight at the Argentine Esperanza Base[90] and three at the Chilean Frei Montalva Station. The countries of Argentina, Australia, Chile, United Kingdom, Norway, France, and New Zealand have made claims to the continent of Antarctica. With the ban of CFCs in the Montreal Protocol of 1989, climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070. Sand and silts were laid down in what is now the Ellsworth, Horlick and Pensacola Mountains. Northern Antarctica recorded a temperature of 20.75 °C (69.3 °F) on 9 February 2020, the highest recorded temperature in the continent. Mount Erebus and Mount Terror are named after two ships from his expedition: HMS Erebus and Terror. [98], A census of sea life carried out during the International Polar Year and which involved some 500 researchers was released in 2010. The first meteorite was found in 1912 and named the Adelie Land meteorite. Antarctica is defined as all land and ice shelves south of 60° S for the purposes of the Treaty System. Exploitation of all mineral resources is banned until 2048 by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. [99], About 1,150 species of fungi have been recorded from Antarctica, of which about 750 are non-lichen-forming and 400 are lichen-forming. These stations include Esperanza, McMurdo, Cámara, Neumayer II and III, and Orcadas, to name only a few. However, it is the outflow of the ice from the land to form the ice shelf which causes a rise in global sea level. Different country calling codes and currencies[139] are used for different settlements, depending on the administrating country. Several research stations have been established around the continent by various countries for scientific and research purposes. [86] He was born in 1978 at Esperanza Base, on the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula;[87][88] his parents were sent there along with seven other families by the Argentine government to determine if the continent was suitable for family life. During the Cambrian period, Gondwana had a mild climate. As a result of continued warming, the polar ice caps melted and much of Gondwana became a desert. For other uses, see, The word was originally pronounced with the first, John George Bartholomew and the naming of Antarctica, CAIRT Issue 13, National Library of Scotland, July 2008, ISSN 1477-4186, and also, Russian State Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic, List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands, Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resources, International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators, "Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica", "The World at a Glance: Surprising Facts", "Coldest temperature ever recorded on Earth in Antarctica: -94.7C (−135.8F)", "Antarctic Explorers Timeline: Early 1800s", "Women in Antarctica: Sharing this Life-Changing Experience", "Dates in American Naval History: October", "Børge Ousland: How I crossed Antarctica alone", "O'Brady's Antarctic Crossing: Was It Really Unassisted? However, belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe, Asia and North Africa—had prevailed since the times of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD. Richard E. Byrd led several voyages to the Antarctic by plane in the 1930s and 1940s. [91], The terrestrial and native all year round species appears to be the descendants of ancestors who lived in geothermally warmed environments during the last ice age, when these areas were the only places on the continent not covered by ice. Ozone depletion over Antarctica can cause a cooling of around 6 °C in the local stratosphere. Antarctic fisheries in 1998–99 (1 July – 30 June) reported landing 119,898 tonnes legally. The continent has about 90% of the world's ice (and thus about 70% of the world's fresh water). The continent of Antarctica contains no countries and no country flags. [174][175] According to NASA, the most widespread Antarctic surface melting of the past 30 years occurred in 2005, when an area of ice comparable in size to California briefly melted and refroze; this may have resulted from temperatures rising to as high as 5 °C (41 °F). He justified the titling of his book A Voyage to Terra Australis (1814) by writing in the introduction: There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will ever be found in a more southern latitude; the name Terra Australis will, therefore, remain descriptive of the geographical importance of this country and of its situation on the globe: it has antiquity to recommend it; and, having no reference to either of the two claiming nations, appears to be less objectionable than any other which could have been selected. [167] The amount of surface warming in West Antarctica, while large, has not led to appreciable melting at the surface, and is not directly affecting the West Antarctic Ice Sheet's contribution to sea level. West Antarctica was partially in the Northern Hemisphere, and during this period large amounts of sandstones, limestones and shales were deposited. It contains all four of Earth's South Poles: the Geographic South Pole, the Geomagnetic South Pole, the Magnetic South Pole, and the South Pole of Rotation. Astrophysicists at Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station study the celestial dome and cosmic microwave background radiation. However, there are a number of research stations, each of which observes its own local time. The coastline measures 17,968 km (11,165 mi)[1] and is mostly characterised by ice formations, as the following table shows: Antarctica is divided in two by the Transantarctic Mountains close to the neck between the Ross Sea and the Weddell Sea. [18] In February 1775, during his second voyage, Captain Cook called the existence of such a polar continent "probable" and in another copy of his journal he wrote: "[I] firmly believe it and it's more than probable that we have seen a part of it".[19]. [126], Other countries participating as members of the Antarctic Treaty have a territorial interest in Antarctica, but the provisions of the Treaty do not allow them to make their claims while it is in force. [171] Between 28 February and 8 March 2008, about 570 km2 (220 sq mi) of ice from the Wilkins Ice Shelf on the southwest part of the peninsula collapsed, putting the remaining 15,000 km2 (5,800 sq mi) of the ice shelf at risk. Despite the lack of precipitation over the central portion of the continent, ice there lasts for extended periods. In 1895, the first confirmed landing was conducted by a team of Norwegians. [1], The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 "AQ" is assigned to the entire continent regardless of jurisdiction. There are no countries on Antarctica and no permanent population. Among these are pieces blasted off the Moon, and probably Mars, by impacts. Station Name Nation Coordinates Situation Altitude Airfield Opened Average Winter Pop. In 1985, three British scientists working on data they had gathered at Halley Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf discovered the existence of a hole in this layer. Since Antarctica is largely uninhabited, the continent is not officially divided up into time zones. [178], There is a large area of low ozone concentration or "ozone hole" over Antarctica. The frozen surface of the lake shares similarities with Jupiter's moon Europa. [36] Mercator Cooper landed in East Antarctica on 26 January 1853.[37]. East Antarctica lies on the Indian Ocean side of the Transantarctic Mountains and comprises Coats Land, Queen Maud Land, Enderby Land, Mac. Painting of James Weddell's second expedition in 1823, depicting the brig Jane and the cutter Beaufoy, Nimrod Expedition South Pole Party (left to right): Wild, Shackleton, Marshall and Adams, Explorer James Clark Ross passed through what is now known as the Ross Sea and discovered Ross Island (both of which were named after him) in 1841. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), a treaty that came into force in 1980, requires that regulations managing all Southern Ocean fisheries consider potential effects on the entire Antarctic ecosystem. [127][128], There is no economic activity in Antarctica at present, except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based outside Antarctica. The name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική (antarktiké), feminine of ἀνταρκτικός (antarktikós),[9] meaning "opposite to the Arctic", "opposite to the north". [48] Ousland got aid from a kite on parts of the distance. If found, these resilient creatures could further bolster the argument for extraterrestrial life in extremely cold, methane-rich environments. The flightless midge Belgica antarctica, up to 6 mm (1⁄4 in) in size, is the largest purely terrestrial animal in Antarctica. Popular Quizzes Today. They are: New Zealand; Australia; France; Norway; UK; Chile; Argentina; So what interest do they have taking a piece of this remote continent? Antarctica me Kitne Mulk hn? Explorer Matthew Flinders, in particular, has been credited with popularising the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Australia. Aboa: Finland: 73°03'S 013°25'W: Queen Maud Land: 400 m : 1989 This list contains: Sovereign states (country names in bold), consisting of: . Glaciation began at the end of the Devonian period (360 Ma), as Gondwana became centred on the South Pole and the climate cooled, though flora remained. Although widely thought of as not being owned by anyone, Antarctica is actually claimed by seven different countries - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, Norway, New Zealand and the United Kingdom-- and all of these countries maintain a base on Antarctica. [10], Aristotle wrote in his book Meteorology about an Antarctic region in c. 350 BC. 12 dec 2014 what countries are part of antarctica? [1], Antarctica is colder than the Arctic for three reasons. The Antarctican dollar, a souvenir item sold in the United States and Canada, is not legal tender.[1][140]. It was once believed that the lake had been sealed off for 500,000 to one million years, but a recent survey suggests that, every so often, there are large flows of water from one lake to another. The latter in its brief sojourn actually made a temporary landing; while the Wilkes expedition, though it did not make a landing, did remain long enough in the region to survey and map some 800 miles of the continent. [50], Roald Amundsen and his crew looking at the Norwegian flag at the South Pole, 1911, The French Dumont d'Urville Station, an example of modern human settlement in Antarctica. The researchers present a complete temperature record from Antarctica's Byrd Station and assert that it "reveals a linear increase in annual temperature between 1958 and 2010 by 2.4±1.2 °C". In 1983 the Antarctic Treaty Parties began negotiations on a convention to regulate mining in Antarctica. Those features can also be observed in algae and cyanobacteria, suggesting that these are adaptations to the conditions prevailing in Antarctica. They proposed instead that a comprehensive regime to protect the Antarctic environment be negotiated in its place. Since then, I started a blog, then a digital media company, I’ve made more than $1,500,000 USD, bought 4 properties and visited (almost) every country in the world. The main mineral resource known on the continent is coal. [59], In September 2018, researchers at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency released a high resolution terrain map (detail down to the size of a car, and less in some areas) of Antarctica, named the "Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica" (REMA).[60]. Even in the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. [125] Argentine–UK relations had previously been damaged throughout 2012 due to disputes over the sovereignty of the nearby Falkland Islands, and the 30th anniversary of the Falklands War. [177], In February 2020, the region recorded the highest temperature of 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), which was a degree higher than the previous record of 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) in March 2015. Click - https://bit.ly/2GcnL6T How many countries in Antarctica. [70] After that, the Pleistocene ice age covered the whole continent and destroyed all major plant life on it.[71]. Glaciologists in Antarctica are concerned with the study of the history and dynamics of floating ice, seasonal snow, glaciers, and ice sheets. How many countries are there in Antarctica that claim portions of its territory? There is no universally accepted answer as to how many countries in the world there actually are. This hole covers almost the whole continent and was at its largest in September 2008, when the longest lasting hole on record remained until the end of December. [96], Some species of marine animals exist and rely, directly or indirectly, on the phytoplankton. Since about 15 Ma, the continent has been mostly covered with ice. [citation needed], Vinson Massif, the highest peak in Antarctica at 4,892 m (16,050 ft), is located in the Ellsworth Mountains. Many countries have scientific research stations on Antarctica. East Antarctica is largely covered by the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. She was a daughter of Fridthjof Jacobsen, the assistant manager of the whaling station, and Klara Olette Jacobsen. Synapsids, commonly known as "mammal-like reptiles", were common in Antarctica during the Early Triassic and included forms such as Lystrosaurus. In West Antarctica, coniferous forests dominated through the entire Cretaceous period (146–66 Ma), though southern beech became more prominent towards the end of this period. Because meteorites in space absorb and record cosmic radiation, the time elapsed since the meteorite hit the Earth can be determined from laboratory studies. The Polar Geospatial Center uses geospatial and remote sensing technology to provide mapping services to American federally funded research teams. [69] It was first recorded near the Beardmore Glacier by Frank Wild on the Nimrod Expedition, and now low-grade coal is known across many parts of the Transantarctic Mountains. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. [118] In 1988, the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resources (CRAMRA) was adopted. The introduction of alien plants or animals can bring a criminal penalty, as can the extraction of any indigenous species. Gamburtsev Mountain ranges is a chain of mountains almost the size of the Alps but are buried by the ice. The elapsed time since fall, or terrestrial residence age, of a meteorite represents more information that might be useful in environmental studies of Antarctic ice sheets. Some environmentalists and scientists have made a call for stricter regulations for ships and a tourism quota. How many countries in Antarctica continent No Countries, but 7 nations want a piece. Qantas resumed commercial overflights to Antarctica from Australia in the mid-1990s. How many countries in different continents? During the Nimrod Expedition led by Ernest Shackleton in 1907, parties led by Edgeworth David became the first to climb Mount Erebus and to reach the South Magnetic Pole. Next to the continental shore are many ice shelves. [39] One month later, the doomed Scott Expedition reached the pole. During the Eocene–Oligocene extinction event about 34 million years ago, CO2 levels have been found to be about 760 ppm[67] and had been decreasing from earlier levels in the thousands of ppm. [103], About 300 million years ago Permian forests started to cover the continent, and tundra vegetation survived as late as 15 million years ago,[104] but the climate of present-day Antarctica does not allow extensive vegetation to form. Brazil currently has a "zone of interest" but not an actual claim. Antarctic ice serves as both the shield and the detection medium for the largest neutrino telescope in the world, built 2 km (1.2 mi) below Amundsen–Scott station. [165] There is evidence from one study that Antarctica is warming as a result of human carbon dioxide emissions,[166] but this remains ambiguous. Antarctic sightseeing flights (which did not land) operated out of Australia and New Zealand until the fatal crash of Air New Zealand Flight 901 in 1979 on Mount Erebus, which killed all 257 aboard. A major concern within this committee is the risk to Antarctica from unintentional introduction of non-native species from outside the region. This means that it is a very cold continent where water is mostly in the form of ice. [158] However, one critic, Eric Rignot of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, states that this outlying study's findings "are at odds with all other independent methods: re-analysis, gravity measurements, mass budget method, and other groups using the same data" and appears to arrive at more precise values than current technology and mathematical approaches would permit. Most of these meteorites have fallen onto the ice sheet in the last million years. [107], The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (also known as the Environmental Protocol or Madrid Protocol) came into force in 1998, and is the main instrument concerned with conservation and management of biodiversity in Antarctica. Australia currently claims the largest area. An expedition led by Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen from the ship Fram became the first to reach the geographic South Pole on 14 December 1911, using a route from the Bay of Whales and up the Axel Heiberg Glacier. [145], In January 2008 British Antarctic Survey (BAS) scientists, led by Hugh Corr and David Vaughan, reported (in the journal Nature Geoscience) that 2,200 years ago, a volcano erupted under Antarctica's ice sheet (based on airborne survey with radar images). It generally forms under otherwise clear or nearly clear skies, so people sometimes also refer to it as clear-sky precipitation. [162][164], Some of Antarctica has been warming up; particularly strong warming has been noted on the Antarctic Peninsula. [141], Since the 1970s an important focus of study has been the ozone layer in the atmosphere above Antarctica. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, and thirty-eight have signed it since then. In 1961, the Antarctic Treaty has been drawn up which stipulates that scientific research should take place but that bans military activity on the continent. Medical physicians have made discoveries concerning the spreading of viruses and the body's response to extreme seasonal temperatures. Antarctica will remain to be used as intended for research and as a nature reserve. 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