These smaller states were the fertile grounds of the Renaissance, which changed Europe massively once more and owed a lot to the competing states trying to outspend each other on glorious art and architecture. In Northern Italy, industrialisation and modernisation began in the last part of the 19th century. Here occurred the Veronese Easters, an act of rebellion against French oppression, that tied down Napoleon for about a week. Italy is a country in south Europe and a member of the European Union.Its official name is Repubblica Italiana.The Italian flag is green, white and red. Kindle Edition. Mussolini elicited emotional responses unique in modern Italian history, and kept his popularity despite the military reverses after 1940. [57], Thanks to their favorable position between East and West, Italian cities such as Venice became international trading and banking hubs and intellectual crossroads. The transition was not smooth for the south (the "Mezzogiorno"). In the 14th century, Northern Italy and upper-central Italy were divided into a number of warring city-states, the most powerful being Milan, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. This nation has a long history and is often considered a pillar of Western Civilization. Most of the states of the Italian Peninsula are united under King Victor Emmanuel II of the Savoy dynasty, crowned King of Italy. Essay Italy Italy is a country located in southern Europe. 1866. [98], The overwhelming attention paid to foreign policy alienated the agricultural community which needed help. Mazzini's activity in revolutionary movements caused him to be imprisoned soon after he joined. Milan, Florence and Venice, as well as several other Italian city-states, played a crucial innovative role in financial development, devising the main instruments and practices of banking and the emergence of new forms of social and economic organization.[57]. The King was forced to choose which of the two rival movements in Italy would form the government: Mussolini's Fascists, or the marxist Italian Socialist Party. Also during this period, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Eastern Libya and Massalia (Marseille) in Gaul. The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Between the 12th and 13th centuries, Italy developed a peculiar political pattern, significantly different from feudal Europe north of the Alps. Benito Mussolini, an important Socialist Party editor took a leadership role, but he was expelled from the Party and only a minority followed him. A new constitution was approved, setting up a parliamentary democracy. In 1155, Emperor Manuel Komnenos attempted to regain Southern Italy from the Normans, but the attempt failed and in 1158 the Byzantines left Italy. Culturally, food preparation was quite important in the past where flashes of significance have been captured in the only surviving cookbook (Apicius), which dates back to the first century BC. At the end of the Lead years, the PCI gradually increased their votes thanks to Enrico Berlinguer. The main hypotheses are that they are indigenous, probably stemming from the Villanovan culture, or that they are the result of invasion from the north or the Near East. Although it became a united country only in 1861, Italy has one of the continent’s oldest cultures. This secured Italy's naval access to Spanish ports and increased Italian influence in the Mediterranean. In face of the threat of a French hegemony over much of Europe, a Grand Alliance between Austria, England, the Dutch Republic and other minor powers (within which the Duchy of Savoy) was signed in The Hague. Prodi won with only a slim majority in the Senate, also due to the new proportional electoral law introduced by Berlusconi and Calderoli in 2005. The one open sore was Spain (Hispania). It has been argued that this cultural rebirth was fuelled by massive rediscoveries of ancient texts that had been forgotten for centuries by Western civilization, hidden in monastic libraries or in the Islamic world, as well as the translations of Greek and Arabic texts into Latin. History of Italy: A Captivating Guide to Italian History, Starting from the First Settlements through the Middle Ages to the Modern Period Captivating History. It is difficult to pin down exact dates for the beginning and end of Italian reunification, but most scholars agree that it began with the end of Napoleonic rule and the Congress of Vienna in 1815, and approximately ended with the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, though the last "città irredente" did not join the Kingdom of Italy until the Italian victory in World War I. 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